foto1
foto1
foto1
foto1
foto1
Начался учебный год, и детям в школах каждый день приходится запоминать больше, чем взрослые узнают иногда за целый год. На сайте вы найдете всю нужную информацию для выполнения домашнего задания и сможете лучьше подготовиться к школе.

referat5vip.ru

Books

   Many, many years ago a town cryer ran through the streets and shouted out all the news. But now we live in the Atomic Age. Too many things happen too quickly for us to learn about them in the old-fashioned way. That is why we have to read more and more in order td find out what is happening in the world. Reading is rarely a waste of time.
   Have you ever thought about the kind of books people used long ago? It is only in the last 500 years that books have been printed on paper. Before that time the only way of making books was to write them out by hand. No one knows when writing first began, but we have found drawings on the walls of caves and scratchings on bones which are at least 25,000 years old.
   The invention of paper played a very important part in the development of books.
   In the 11th century the art of paper making reached Europe but no trace of printing was found in Europe until 1423. It is known that Johann Gutenberg secretly tried out ways of printing in Strasbourg, Germany, in 1440.
   The knowledge of the methods of printing spread so quickly over the Continent of Europe that by the year 1487 nearly every country had started printing books.
   Later people began to learn how to make paper more quickly and cheaply and of better quality.
   As a result of this, books became much lighter and smaller.
   The first person to print books in the English language was William Caxton, in Russia — Ivan Fedorov.
   The first book printed in the Russian language appeared in Moscow on the first of March, 1564. Up to that time there were only handwritten books in Russia. The house built for printing books was not far from the Kremlin. At that time it was one of the best buildings in the Russian capital.
   Ivan Fedorov and his assistants were the first to use Russian letters.
   By the 16th century books looked very much as they do today and since then very little change has been made in their appearance.

Книги

   Много-много лет назад по улицам бегал городской глашатай и выкрикивал новости. Но сейчас мы живем в атомном веке. Многие события происходят слишком быстро, чтобы мы узнавали о них устаревшими способами. Вот почему нам приходится больше и больше читать, чтобы узнавать о том, что происходит в мире. Чтение редко бывает напрасной тратой времени.
   Вы когда-нибудь думали о том, какие книги люди читали много лет назад? Книги печатаются на бумаге только последние 500 лет. До этого времени единственным способом сделать книгу было написать ее вручную. Никто не знает, когда впервые появилась письменность, но найдены рисунки на стенах пещер и на костях, которым, по крайней мере, 25 000 лет.
   Изобретение бумаги сыграло очень важную роль в развитии книги.
   В XI веке искусство делать бумагу пришло в Европу, но не обнаружено никаких следов книгопечатания в Европе до 1423 г. Известно, что Иоганн Гутенберг втайне пытался печатать в Страсбурге (Германия) в 1440 г.
   Знание способов печатания так быстро распространялось по Европе, что к 1487 г. книги начали печатать почти в каждой стране.
   Позже люди узнали, как делать бумагу быстрее, дешевле и лучшего качества.
   Результатом этого было то, что книги стали намного легче и меньше.
   Первым человеком, который напечатал книгу на английском языке, был Уильям Кэкстон, в России — Иван Федоров.
   Первая книга, напечатанная на русском языке, появилась в Москве 1 марта 1564 г. До этого в России были только рукописные книги. Дом, построенный для печатания книг, был недалеко от Кремля. В то время это было одно из лучших зданий в русской столице.
   Иван Федоров и его помощники первыми использовали русский алфавит.
   К XVI веку книги стали очень похожи на современные, и с тех пор они мало изменились внешне.


My Favourite Book    My favourite book is "Robinson Crusoe" by Daniel Defoe. D. Defoe (1660—1731) was a great master of realistic detail. The novel "Robinson Crusoe" was written in 1719. The novel is praise to human labour and the triumph of man over nature.   Defoe shows the development of his hero. At the beginning of the story we see an inexperienced youth, a rather frivolous boy, who then beco
The British Media   The British Media consists of the press and radio and TV broadcasting.   Now a couple of words about papers. First of all there is no subscription. You may buy any on sale. There are two main types of newspapers: the «popular» papers and the «quality» papers.   The popular papers are less in size, with many pictures, big headlines and short articles. They are easy to read. They
The Day of Knowledge in Russia   The National Day of Knowledge is celebrated in all parts of our country on the 1st of September.   Teachers, parents, pupils usually gather at the school yards in the morning of this day They can have different performances or concerts dedicated to The Day Of Knowledge. After that everybody congratulate each other and then pupils and parents give flowers to the tea
My Day off When a school-girl I always envied those students who went to school five but not six days a week, as we did. So you may guess, I had the only day off — Sunday. On Sunday, I didn't have to hurry anywhere, that's why, I got up at nine or ten o'clock. I wasn't an early riser.I did my bed, washed myself and went to the kitchen. In the kitchen the table had already been laid and I always ha
The Towns of Great Britain   The centre of everything in Great Britain is the city of London. It's situated at the centre of a vast national and international network of communication. London consists of four main districts, which differ from each other. These are the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. London's industries are extremely varied. Among them an extensive system of docks
My Summer Holidays   After my hard and busy school year my summer holidays began. I felt happy when hard and busy school year finished and summer holidays began. I started to plan a lot of wonderful things to do during my summer vocation.   I was dreaming about visiting far south countries I always wanted to visit. For example, I dreamed to visit, Greece islands or Spanish beaches. But I had to go
Bernard Shaw   George Bernard Shaw was born in Dublin, Ireland, on 26th of July, in 1856.   At the age of twenty one, Shaw came to live in London. His first five novels were rejected by London publishers, but became well sort after when Shaw became a famous playwright.   In his own words, Shaw said he was a writing machine. He wrote 65 plays and many pamphlets. His interests lay in politics, socia
Books in Our Life   Nowadays it's almost impossible to imagine our life without books. Perhaps, there are more books on our planet than men alive.   Long before the invention of printing people valued books as treasure troves of the human knowledge and experience. Hand — written manuscripts took months of writing and were collected by and kept in monasteries with utmost care. We can distinguish bo
The official name of GB is the United Kingdom of GB and Northern Ireland. It occupies the territory of the British Isles. The BI lie to the north-west of Europe and consists of two main islands: GB and Ireland. Their total area is over 244.000 square km. The British Isles are separated from the continent by the North Sea, the English Channel and the strait of Dover which is 18 miles wide. The west
Ernest Hemingway   Ernest Hemingway is one of the greatest 20th-century American writers. The legend which developed around his impressive personality was that of a man of action, a devil-may-care adventurer, a brave war correspondent, an amateur boxer, a big-game hunter and deep-sea fisherman, the victim of three car accidents and two plane crashes, a man of four wives and many loves, but above a
Moscow. History   It is not known when Moscow was first settled. The first recorded reference to the town is in an early Russian historical chronicle under the year 1147. At that time, Moscow was a possession of Yuri Dolgoruky, a Russian prince who ruled the surrounding region. The town lay on important land and water trade routes, and it grew and prospered.   During the 1200's, Tatar invaders fro
St. Petersburg is a city of magic beauty, a city of white night , broad straight avenues, green parks, countless bridges and canals. The greatest architects of the 18-th and 19-th centuries created magnificent ensembles in our city. St.Petersburg reminds some visitors of Rome others of Paris, Vienna or Amsterdam. But really there is no city in the world like St. Petersburg It s bridges, canals, gr