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The official name – the United Kingdom of the Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Other names: Great Britain (Britain) /after its major isle/ England /after its major historic part/ The British Isles /it occupies the territory of the British Isles/ Albion /the ancient name of the British Isles given by Romans. From Latin “alba” = “white”. Romans were impressed by the white chalk cliffs/ 2. A constitutional monarchy The head of State is the Queen or a King. She or he inherits the title, and so is not elected by people. The government is made up of Members of Parliament (Mps) who are elected British Parliament consists of 2 Houses: the House of lords and the House Commons. The Prime minister is the head of Government. The main political parties are the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal. 3. Occupies the territory of the British Isles. The UK is an island state, is composed of 5,500 large and small islands. The 2 main islands are: 1. Great Britain /in which are England, Scotland and Wales/ 2. Ireland /in which are Northern Ireland and independent Irish Republic/ Some other islands: The Orkney and the Shetland Islands in the North The Hebrides in the North – West Anglesey – lies close to North Wales The Scilly Island [‘sili] – off the South – West coast of England, near the Land`s End. The Isle of Wight – in the South 4. The UK is one of the world`s smaller countries (twice smaller than France or Spain) – with an area of 244,1002 km. Great Britain is just under 1,000 km from the South coast to the extreme {крайний} North of Scotland. It is just under 500 km across in the widest part. UK ~ 244,5002 km. Great Britain ~ 228,4002 km. England ~ 131,8 thousand sq. km. Wales ~ 20,8 thousand sq. km. Scotland ~ 77 thousand sq. km. Northern Ireland ~ 14 thousand sq. km. 5. Is situated off the North – West coast of Europe. The seas around Britain provide exceptionally good fishing grounds. Is washed by the atlantic Ocean in the N – W. the North Sea in the East Is separated from Ireland by the Irish Sea from the European continent by the English Channel (La Manche) and its narrowest part the Strait of Dover (Pas de Calais) which is only 32 km wide. 6. The official language is English, but there are some other languages spoken too. The Gaelic language (Scottish) is still used in parts of the Scottish Highlands and islands. Wales is officially bilingual {двуязычен} /Welsh and English/ Irish (form of the Gaelic language) English, Welsh, Scottish, Irish. 7. Stonehedge is situated in the South – Westen part of England near the city of Salisbury. It is one of the most famous prehistoric monuments in Europe. It was built over 4000 years ago on Salisbury plain in Wiltshire. The largest stones reach about 7 metres above ground and 3 metres below ground. On the 21 of June it is the longest day in the year, the sun rises over the heelstone and shines into the center of the circle.

The Book-bag   Some people read for instruction, and some for pleasure, but not a few read from habit. I belong to that company. Let us admit that reading with us is just a drug that we cannot get along without.   Books are necessary to me and I never travel far without enough reading matter.   But when I am starting on a long journey, the problem is really great. I have learnt my lesson. Once I f
Education in Great Britain: Schools   In Britain it is compulsory for everyone between the ages of 5 and 16 years to receive some officially recognized form of schooling, though most secondary schools continue to provide education until the age of 18.   The vast majority of pupils attend state schools, which are absolutely free (including all text books and exercise books), but there are also abou
Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch – Queen Elisabeth II as a head of state. The British constitution, isn’t set out in a single document. Instead it is made up of a combination of laws and conventions. A thousand years ago the Anglo-Saxon kings consulted the Great Council before taking important decisions. Between 1066 and 1215 the king ruled alone, but in 1215 the
Soccer   The modern game of soccer has a simple goal: kick or head the ball into the goal of your opponent's team. Basically, there is also one simple rule: no one except the goalkeeper may use their hands to play the ball. In a soccer game there are two teams of 11 players, who try to score a point by kicking a ball into the opponents net. Soccer is played on a rectangular field with a net on eac
Television in Modern Life    Television plays a very important role in our life. It is a powerful source of entertainment and information, a win door through which the whole world can enter our homes.   There is virtually no family that does not have a TV set. Some people prefer to spend their free time watching light TV programmes while others prefer watching political and educational programmes.
Museums and Art Galleries of Moscow   Speaking about art galleries of Moscow we must mention the most famous galleries.   The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best known picture galleries in Russia. It takes its name from its founder Pavel Tretyakov, a Moscow merchant. In the 19th century Tretyakov began to collect Russian paintings. He visited all the exhibitions and art studios and bought t
A. Sakharov   Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, an outstanding scientist and public figure, was born in 1921.   The biography of A. Sakharov as one of the "secret" authorities in thermonuclear physics mainly falls on the times of the "thaw" In 1948 he began serious work on hydrogen bomb and while working on the problem he came to the conclusion that any atomic and nuclear should be banned.   He wrote m
Family Life   How close are you as a family?   We usually see each other at least once a month, maybe more often. We have lunch together on Sunday if we haven't got anything special to do. We live in Tula, which is about an hour and a half away, but we always come to Moscow where my mother and father live. It's not so far.   Usually my grandmother and my uncle and aunt are there too — we're quite
Space Exploration    Entering the twenty-first century, we have an unimaginable array of technology and a generation of young people schooled in these technologies.   Three decades ago people placed six flags on the Moon. Our automatic space stations reached almost all planets of Solar System.   Today we no longer try for new space achievements; instead we celebrate the anniversaries of the past.
My School    My school is a three-storeyed building. It is quite big with sport ground behind it, inside swimming pool.   On the ground floor there are the classrooms for the primary-school pupils, workshops, library. There are all kinds of tools and machines in the workshops. The boys of our school have a woodwork room too.   There is a room for manual works for girls. Teachers teach them how to
Maslenitza   Maslenitza is one of the most favourite holidays in our country. It lasts from Monday till Sunday.   It comes either at the end of February or at the beginning of March, this is so-called movable festival. In 2002, Maslenitza took place in March (from 3d up to 9th).   This holiday means the end of winter and the spring coming. It has pagan origin. During this holiday people visit each
My School    Our school is a fine four-storeyed building. There are many classrooms and specialized rooms for studying different subjects in it.   The pupils study Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Russian, English, History, Geography and Biology in specialized rooms.   Chemistry, Physics and Biology are taught in well-equipped science rooms. There is equipment for laboratory experiments there. At